At its Highest Vibrational Frequency: Affirmational leadership


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Affirmative Leadership, Charismatic Leadership, Participative Leadership, Disempowering Leadership


Leadership is complex phenomenon and has been researched extensively. The leadership literature focuses on the traits, styles, and behaviors of leaders, but the question which is being asked in this research remains generally unanswered. This research intends to explore; what is good leadership and what is bad leadership? Data was collected using a semi structured interview protocol from purposively selected sixteen respondents mainly working in educational organizations at different levels both heads and subordinates in UK and Pakistan. Most subordinates who were interviewed described their leaders as disempowering and non-consultative.  Based on the findings and understanding which we got from this research, a rainbow leadership model has been proposed, covering the roles and behaviours of the leaders on a spectrum of effective/good leadership and ineffective/bad leadership. An effective leader is affirmational to individuals’ abilities and confidence and capable of empowering staff to support each other in transforming themselves. On the other end of continuum is an ineffective leader who may demotivate and destroy individuals and increase the turnover of good staff.